In the early 1800’s various scientists proposed that electricity and magnetism were linked. It was not until the early 1900’s when a Swedish-American electrical engineer, Ernst Frederick Werner Alexanderson (1878 -1975) was working for the General Electric company and designed the Alexanderson alternator. This was a high-frequency generator for longwave transmissions, which made voice radio broadcasts practical. His first practical demonstration was on Christmas Eve, 1906. Fessenden broadcast from Brant Rock, Massachusetts using a 500 watt transmitter. The transmission was heard as far away as the Caribbean Sea.
Odd Bits and Weird FAQ’s
Who invented the HF Radio?
Where is the most remote point in an ocean on earth?
(S48°52.6′, W123°23.6′) Called “Point Nemo” the point in the Pacific Ocean farthest from any land.
Who’s Roger, and Why Do Pilots Talk So Much About Him?
A very plausible explanation arises from aviation’s early days, when the emerging industry adopted customs, procedures, and terms from more established industries. One such industry was the telegraph business, which of course operated in Morse code. Given the uncertain quality and reliability of such transmissions, standard procedure upon successful receipt of a message was for the receiver to transmit a single letter — “R” — to signify that “I have received and understood your last transmission.” Voice communications being similarly subject to garbles, early aviators and their ground-bound interlocutors needed a similar protocol. As it was not possible to transmit a Morse-coded “R,” they did the next best thing by transmitting the word “roger,” which was at that time the spelling (phonetic) alphabet version of the letter “R.” Then, as now, it was simply an acknowledgement that “I have received and understood your last transmission.”
What’s up with international “Spelling Alphabets”?
According to some sources, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) created the world’s first spelling alphabet, which is a more accurate term for what most of us call the “phonetic” alphabet. The initial version was used from 1927 until 1932 when, with changes made to improve functionality, it was also adopted by the International Commission for Air Navigation (one of ICAO’s predecessor organizations).
The 1932 spelling alphabet consisted of the following:Amsterdam Baltimore Casablanca Denmark Edison Florida Gallipoli Havana Italia Jerusalem Kilogramme Liverpool Madagascar New York Oslo Paris Quebec Roma Santiago Tripoli Upsala Valencia Washington Xanthippe Yokohama Zurich.
In 1941, the United States began using the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet, which was more commonly known as the “Able Baker” version. Its terms were as follows: Able Baker Charlie Dog Easy Fox George How Item Jig King Love Mike Nan Oboe Peter Queen Roger Sugar Tare Uncle Victor William X-ray Yoke Zebra Several other domestic and international variants (e.g., Latin America’s “Ana Brazil” spelling alphabet) were used in this era, with lessons learned with respect to global functionality and understandability. In
November 1955, ICAO provided a recording of its proposed Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet to all member
states for testing, and adopted the final version for aeronautical use in March 1956: Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliett Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey Xray Yankee Zulu
Why is English the international language of the air ?
Historical circumstance. At the time the 52 nations who founded the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) first convened in Chicago in 1944, WWII had devastated many countries’ industrial capacity — including aviation manufacturing and operations. ICAO made English the official lingua franca of global aviation primarily because English speaking countries dominated the era’s flight operations. Although there was (and still is) no prohibition on the use of the local language(s) in domestic airspace, ICAO’s 1951 adoption of English as the official language for aviation guaranteed — sort of — that English language capability would be available for all international flights.
What should I be aware of concerning radiation hazards experienced at altitudes that we fly at?
There are significant risks to humans at higher flight levels. These risks are details in a DOT report DOT/FAA/AM-03/16 and FAA AC 120-61A
Where is the northernmost point of Earth?
The geographic North Pole in the Arctic Ocean is the northernmost point of Earth. The northernmost point on land is Kaffeklubben Island north of Greenland (N83°40′N W29°50′), which lies slightly north of Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland
Where is the southernmost point of Earth?
The southernmost point of the world and the southernmost point on land is the geographic South Pole, which is on the continent of Antarctica
Where is the western and eastern most point of Earth?
The westernmost and easternmost points of the world, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes. The westernmost point on land, would be Attu Island, Alaska. The easternmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, would be Caroline Island, Kiribati. Due to a 1995 realignment of the International Date
Where is the highest point of Earth?
The highest point measured from sea level is the summit of Mount Everest that borders Nepal and China. Measurements of its height vary slightly, the elevation of its peak is usually given as 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.
Where is the lowest point of Earth?
The lowest known point is Challenger Deep (11°20.0′N 142°11.8′E.) at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 10,911 m (35,797 ft) below sea level.
Where is the highest town/city or village on Earth?
La Rinconada, Peru, 5,100 m (16,732 ft), in the Peruvian Andes. It is located near a gold mine.