FAQ

International Ops Top 10 FAQ’s

In reference to ATC Clearances, I can't find a good working definition of the words "At" or "By".

"At" would indicate that the pilot takes the appropriate actions so as to arrive at the correct position (vertical, lateral, horizontal) specified in the clearance at the specified time or location.

"By" would indicate that at the pilot’s prerogative the appropriate action would be taken so as to arrive at the correct position (vertical, lateral, longitudinal) before the position specified in the clearance. If unsure of what the clearance is requiring, query the controller and get confirmation. ICAO Document #4444, Paragraph 12.3.1 J, K and L Operational Data Link Document (GOLD), 2nd Edition Appendix A, UM 20 thru UM29 and North Atlantic Operations Bulletin #2014_002

If ADS-C is sending position reports to a ground station, why do I have to make HF radio calls?

It depends on the OCA’s monitoring needs. If they state that “Voice reports not required” then do not make routine voice reports. in this case, HF radios would be used to maintain a back up to CPDLC. SELCAL would also have to be checked for functionality. Global Operational Data Link Document (GOLD), 2nd Edition Chapter 5, Paragraph 5.6.3, NAT Document007 Paragraph 6.1.22.

Where and when do I really need to temperature compensate the altimeter readings for cold weather?

The Canadian’s know a lot about cold weather flight operations. Inside their AIM it states that all Procedure Turn, FAF, MDA and missed approach altitudes should be corrected by the pilot and then advised to ATC.  Transport Canada TC/AIM RAC 9.0 Instrument Arrival Flight Rules, IFR Procedures 9.17.

Since 17SEP15 the FAA has directed cold weather altimeter corrections a specific airports. In response to recognized safety concerns over cold weather altimetry errors, the FAA completed a risk analysis to determine if current instrument approach procedures in the United States National Airspace System are at risk during cold temperature operations. The study used the coldest recorded temperature for the airport in the last five years and specifically investigated if there was a probability that expected altitude errors in a barometric altimetry system, during these non-standard day operations, could exceed the Required Obstacle Clearance used on procedure segment altitudes. Please see InFO#15002 and AIM Paragraph 7-2-3 for complete details. ICAO Document #8168, PANS-Ops Volume 1, Part 3, Chapter 4 has another good description of what and how to apply altimeter corrections. It specifically address’ the fact that only while on Radar vectors is the controller responsible and applies a cold weather altimeter correction. This ATC correction is not uniformly applied worldwide.

Are there time limits associated with IRS operation in oceanic airspace ? 

Yes. RNP(RNAV)-10 airspace operations places a time limit on INS only operations. This begins from the moment the LRNS is placed into “NAV” or is last updated via GNSS, DME/DME, VOR/DME or manuallyAC 90-105A, Appendix G, Paragraph G.5

Is the Russian Federation a WGS-84 compliant country?

The national geodetic geocentric coordinate system “The Parameters of the Earth - 1990” PZ-90, (PZ-90.02), which is practically identical to WGS-84, is used in the Russian Federation. The geodetic sys- tem of 1942 (SK-42) shall be used temporarily at the aerodromes and on the airways where the accurate geodetic survey has not been carried out according to the coordinate system PZ-90. Russian AIP, General 1.7 “Annex 4 2.18.1”

What is a Journey Log Book?

A Journey Log Book shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation. In this log shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, crew and each journey.  Recommended items are aeroplane nationality, registration, date, crew names and duty assignments, departure and arrival times and points, purpose and observations of the flight, PIC signature. In some cases the General Declaration “GenDec” can be used for this. ICAO Article 29, 34, ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 11.4. Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 2.4.2 and 2.8.2. AC 91-70A, Paragraph 3-1 and 3-5, EASA AMC Guidance Material ORO-20

 

Are there fuel remaining requirements from and Equal Time Point to the diversion airport?

For private operators, there are no regulatory requirements for fuel remaining at an ETP.

Commercial operations (121 or 135) do have extensive planning requirements. Specifically, fuel required at the ETP point is the standard IFR alternate fuel required (135.223) or the greater of:

1. Cabin decompression cruise profile

2. One-engine inop, OEI and simultaneous cabin decompression cruise profile

3. One-engine inoperative cruise profile.

Followed by:

IFR hold above alternate at 1,500AFL for 15 minutes then, approach and landing. Then factor in:

5% to headwinds at cruise/5% decrease in tailwinds at cruise. Without a reliable icing prediction, any cruising to alternate must include fuel for engine/wing anti-icing system use at OAT’s below +10C. APU fuel burn must be accounted for if planned for use during these profiles. AC 120-42B and 135-42, Paragraph #402

Where can I find a list of the PIC special qualification airports?

The Special Pilot-In-Command Qualification Airport List is maintained in the FSIMS and is associated with operations specifications C050 and C067. The current list can be found at: http://fsims.faa.gov

Where can I find the Oceanic/Remote Weather Deviation procedures for Oakland Oceanic? 

Inside Chart Supplement Pacific, Section 5. Look for: “Special Procedures For In–Flight Contingencies In Oceanic Airspace” 

When ATC is using Mach Number Technique, MNT (assigned a Mach number to hold), What are the tolerances for speed control?

 

The pilot is expected to hold the assigned True Mach number+/- 0. Confusion arises from an Oakland Oceanic, KZAK NOTAM # A1613/16

ATTN ALL AIRCREWS -NEW PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENT FOR FLIGHTS

OPERATING IN OAKLAND OCEANIC CONTROL AREA (KZAK)

IN ORDER TO SUPPORT COST INDEX OR ECON SPEEDS AND MAINTAIN ATC

SEPARATION SPACING AIRCREWS ARE REQUIRED TO USE THE FOLLOWING

PROCEDURES IN THE KZAK FIR.  A PILOT MUST INFORM ATS EACH TIME THE

CRUISING MACH NUMBER VARIES OR IS EXPECTED TO VARY BY A VALUE EQUAL

TO OR GREATER THAN 0.02 MACH FROM:

(1) THE MACH NUMBER AT FIR ENTRY; OR

(2) ANY SUBSEQUENT SPEED CHANGE NOTIFIED TO ATC IN FLIGHT

ICAO Annex 2, Paragraph 3.6.2.2, ICAO Document #4444, Paragraph 5.4.2.4