Training

Why Should I do International Operations Training?

A specific international operations training curriculum is not described by FAA regulations nor by Annex 2 to the ICAO.  The FAA requires that private operators (at a minimum) to “Be Familiar” with the Oceanic/Remote flight operation intended. A comprehensive commercial training provider’s oceanic operations course is useful in fulfilling this requirement. Commercial flight operators will need to satisfy the international operations training requirement found in their Operations Specifications.

Detailed requirements are made of commercial and FAA Part 91K operators for international procedures training. In some cases FAA Inspectors have accepted military training records, indicating prior oceanic operations experience, as proof of training. More information on what constitutes an adequate program of instruction can be found in the FAA’s Aviation Safety Inspector’s Handbook, FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 4, Chapter 12. From what I have seen, inside ARGUS and IS-BAO there is a general requirement for "International Procedures" training but, no specific course outlined. Popular choices usually include RVSM/TCAS II, Worldwide Contingencies and PANS-Ops differences.

 

What Does International Flight Resources’ Training Cover?

Tailoring your training to what you have identified inside your SMS is wise. This way your pilots see material that is not already common to your knowledge base and meets the threats before the operating pilots. We have had good response to a scenario based recurrent program. Basically, you run a sample flight plan or use one from your files and forward a copy to us for review. We use this in the recurrent to brief and brainstorm specific issues inside your international operation. We can ensure that full coverage is given to the subjects that are usually required for an international procedures recurrent. This course outline we use comes directly from the FAA aviation safety inspector’s Handbook, FAA Order 8900.1, Vol.4, Chapter 12. Below here is a comprehensive list of the subject material covered.

  • ICAO measurement standards and operational rules, regulations and procedures
  • Use of oceanic flight planning charts
  • Sources and content of international flight publications
  • Itinerary planning
  • Preparation of FAA international flight plans ICAO flight plans, and flight logs
  • Route planning within the special area of operation where flights are to be conducted
  • En route and terminal procedures (different from USA)
  • Long-range, air-to-ground, communication procedures
  • Structure of the special area of operation where the flights are to be conducted
  • Air traffic clearances
  • International meteorology including significant weather charts and prognostic weather charts, tropopause prognostic charts and terminal weather and seasonal conditions
  • Over the route to be flown, the airports to be used and the terrain and minimum safe altitudes
  • The meteorological, communication and air traffic facilities, services and procedures.
  • Search and rescue procedures
  • The navigational facilities and procedures, including any long-range navigation procedures associated with the planned route

 

Where Can I Find This Definition of “Special Area of Operation Airspace”?

From the FAA Aviation Safety Inspector’s Handbook, FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 4, Chapter 1.

Examples of special areas of operation include the following:

  • Areas of Magnetic Unreliability (AMU) and Polar operations
  • North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification
  • Central East Pacific (CEPAC) airspace
  • North Pacific (NOPAC) airspace
  • Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS)
  • West Atlantic Route System (WATRS) and the Caribbean Sea
  • Gulf of Mexico control areas (Gulf routes)
  • Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum(RVSM)
  • Required Navigation Performance (RNP)-10,4 ect.

Examples of special Navigation Equipment include the following:

  • Area Navigation (RNAV)
  • Inertial navigation or reference systems (INS) or (IRS)
  • GPS

How Long Does this Take and How Much is It Going to Cost?

A one-day/8-hr customized International Procedures recurrent is very popular with out clients. We can provide this as an On-Line training presentation or Live/in-person. A combination of these methods can cover both those in the classroom and pilots meeting flight schedule demands and unable to attend in-person. 

Initial international operations training usually takes two to three 8hr days depending on previous experience and familiarity with the subject material and regions desided to be covered. Please email us (via the contact form on the right side of this page) to discuss your specific requirements. We can provide you with a detailed cost estimate, standard rate sheet and course outline for your budgeting decisions.

I Know How to Read a TAF/METAR, do I REALLY Need This ?

Aviation Meteorology is a required subject in academic training from the very beginning of pilot certification. Basic principles are learned and once operational flying begins, it is common to just let the “Weather Guess’er” do this for for us. It is equally common to be caught unaware of a change in the weather and then blame the same provider. Advanced understanding of regional weather, seasonal effects on flight planning decisions and useful knowledge of operational warnings and alerts are what we are providing here.

What Does International Flight Resources’ Training Cover?

The core outline we use comes directly from the FAA aviation safety inspector’s (ASI) Handbook, (FAA Order 8900.1, Vol.4, Chapter 12). Below here is a list of the subject material covered.

  • ICAO measurement standards and operational rules, regulations and procedures
  • International meteorology including significant weather charts, prognostic weather charts, tropopause prognostic charts
  • Terminal weather and seasonal conditions
  • Over the route to be flown, the airports to be used and the terrain and minimum safe altitudes
  • The meteorological, communication and air traffic facilities, services and procedures.

Added to this core are subjects like: Volcanic Ash procedures, Typhoon/Hurricane development and tracking resources and Space Weather education and advisory locations. This really becomes the operator’s complete picture of the changing environment that they are operating in.

How Long is This Going to Take and How Much Does it Cost ?

A customized International Aviation Meteorology recurrent is available. Depending on previous experience and familiarity with the subject material, a half-day is usually all that is required. Please contact us (via the contact form on the right side of this page) to discuss your specific requirements. We can provide you with a detailed cost estimate, standard rate sheet and course outline for your budgeting decisions.

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Oceanic/Remote Navigation Training....I already HAD this, Why Should I do it Again ?

Navigation training is basic to piloting skills. Academic skills learned in pilot training are rarely kept current and transferred into modern computerized cockpits. Operational knowledge....as old as time, as complicated as the most modern FMC, drives us to become “Children of the Magenta”. When is the last time you recalled the importance of a plotting chart, a compass and a watch? What about why an Equal Time Point is only the beginning of the divert decision? More importantly are you proficient in the equations and drills necessary to return to to land once oceanic and only have 30-minutes of battery life left? Advanced avionics demand that pilots ask the correct questions to get the data and information that we need in these circumstances.

What Does International Flight Resources’ Training Cover? The core outline we use comes from a compilation of FAA Order 8900.1, Flight Navigator’s Handbook and the Advanced Avionics Handbook. Below here is a partial list of the subject material covered.

  • ICAO operational rules, regulations and procedures
  • Use of oceanic flight planning charts
  • Preparation of FAA international flight plans
  • Preparation and use of flight logs
  • Route planning within the special area of operation
  • Oceanic/Remote Enroute procedures
  • Long-range, air-to-ground, communication procedures
  • Structure of the special area of operation
  • Air traffic clearances
  • The navigational facilities and procedures
  • Long-range navigation procedures associated
  • ETP and Wet Footprint Calculations
  • Divert Planning and Considerations

How Long is This Going to Take and How Much Does it Cost ?

A customized International Aviation Navigation recurrent is available. Depending on previous experience and familiarity with the subject material, a half-day is usually all that is required. Please contact us (via the contact form on the right side of this page) to discuss your specific requirements. We can provide you with a detailed cost estimate, standard rate sheet and course outline for your budgeting decisions.

Is All This “Touchy-Feely” Stuff Really Important?

Sample OutlineThe science of Human Factors probably started in ancient Greece. Evidence indicates that in the 5th century BC Greeks used ergonomic principles in the design of their tools, jobs, and workplaces. During the First World War, the need to optimize factory production and to assign thousands of recruits more effectively to military duties drove the need to research a new field; Ergonomics. The Second World War produced sophisticated equipment that was making demands on operators' cognition, decision-making, attention, situational awareness and hand-eye coordination never before seen. These requirements of operators became key in the success or failure of a task and were easily surpassing human capability to operate it with maximum effectiveness. The worst disaster in aviation history was when two wide-body airliners collided in Tenerife during 1977. This was almost entirely attributed to a series of deficiencies in the application of Human Factors. The recognition that basic Human Factors education was needed throughout the aviation industry led to various approaches to formal training in different countries. A 1976 agreement between the United States’ FAA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration established a voluntary, non-punitive and confidential reporting system called, Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This constituted official recognition that adequate information for analysis of human behavior and errors in human performance is best obtained by eliminating the threat of punitive action against the person making the report. By 1989, over 110,000 reports had been received by ASRS, the system had issued nearly 1,000 alert bulletins and over 1,500 special studies had been made. Similar programs are established in Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia. Crew Resource Management training is required by the FAA Safety Inspectors Handbook, Order 8900.1 and ICAO Annex 6. A specific curriculum for a pilot to be considered qualified in Human Factors is found in the United Kingdom’s CAP Publications #719 and #737.

Fatigue Risk Management System, FRMS

Fatigue Risk Management System is defined by ICAO as "a data-driven means of continuously monitoring and maintaining fatiguerelated safety risks, based upon scientific principles and knowledge as well as operational experience that aims to ensure relevant personnel are performing at adequate levels of alertness". In other words, it's not just about the hours flow and on duty. We can provide the academics and explination of current scheduling requiremetns for your crews. Any FRMS needs to have thes pieces for adequate complinace and operational scheduling. 

A Half-Day customized HF or FRMS is available. Initial Human Factors training (including Fatigue Risk Management) usually takes 1-Day, depending on previous experience and familiarity with the subject material. Please email us (via the contact form on the right side of this page) to discuss your specific requirements. We can provide you with a detailed cost estimate, standard rate sheet and course outline for your budgeting decisions.

Your principal just showed up with 4 US gallons of Channel No.5 for transport in the cabin plus 27 kilos of Chinese fireworks for the cargo hold....this is not the time to declare your operation a “Do Not Carry” operation out of ignorance. Or maybe your management plan is loading DG with a label and then hoping for the best outcome? Have your crews ready for the day with information, procedures and coping strategies to comply with the regulations and common sense precautions. At the very least USA law and ICAO regulations require training and record keeping procedures for these kind of shipments.

For more information, take a look at the links provided below. We can provide specific training in this subject for your operation. Please contact us (via the contact form on the right side of this page) for details on your specific training requirements.

Informational Publications

ICAO Dangerous Good Homepage http://www.icao.int/safety/dangerousgoods/pages/default.aspx

FAA’s HAZMAT Office

http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ash/ash_program...

Just about the time an engine goes BANG is not the place or time for and academic discussion quoting regulations for aircraft certification. Equally, this is not the place to be determining what a runway analysis really was trying to tell you to do or, figuring out how to do it from where you are at right now. Practical application of performance numbers and contingency procedures begin with a true appreciation for what an aircraft can do for you, where regulators and procedure designers are providing you numbers and subtle warnings backed up by procedures that can give bold cautions for your operation.

For more information, take a look at the links provided below. We can provide specific training in this subject for your operation. Please contact us (via the contact form on the right side of this page) for specific details on your training requirements.

Informational Publications

A Review of Transport Airplane Performance Requirements Might Benefit Safety, by Joop H. Wagenmakers. Published in Flight Safety Digest, 3Feb00 http://flightsafety.org/fsd/fsd_feb00.pdf

How Much Runway is Enough?

Published in Aviation Week magazine 1OCT12 http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/article-xml/BC_10_01_2012_p...
Boeing RTO Video http://www.boeing.com/Features/2011/05/bca_747-8_RTO_05_04_11.html

Informational Regulations

FAA Airport Obstacle Analysis Webpage http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airli...
14 CFR Part 25, AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?c=ecfr&SID=0ad247447fed4eb5395434cb...

International travel involves extensive attention to detail that must be timely, correctly documented and properly acted upon. A trip that is not well planned can cause complications, delays and/or denial of entry/exit. Begin the planning with the basic “who, what, where, when, how” when preparing an international itinerary. Below here are some of general subjects that should be covered in ANY trip planning and traning programs for Schedulers/Dispatchers. 

A one-day/8-hr customized International Procedures recurrent is very popular with out clients. We can provide this as an On-Line training presentation or Live/in-person. A combination of these methods can cover both those in the classroom and those individulas meeting flight schedule demands and unable to attend in-person. 

Initial Scheduler/Dispatcher operational familiarzation instruction usually takes two to three 8hr days depending on previous experience and familiarity with the subject material and regions desided to be covered. Please email us (via the contact form on the right side of this page) to discuss your specific requirements. We can provide you with a detailed cost estimate, standard rate sheet and course outline for your budgeting decisions.

Permit Requirements

Acceptance of a flight plan and issuance of a flight clearance by a foreign ATC unit does not constitute official approval for airspace penetration. CAAs may require prior permission for airspace penetration. Pursue airspace violations that occur in such instances as in-flight interception may result. Depending on the country, receipt of overflight, landing (and in some cases operating and parking permits) can take anywhere from hours to months. Requirements vary from country to country. Overflight and landing permits must be one of the first steps in planning any flight outside the U.S. Once obtained, copies of permits should be kept onboard for in-flight reference and presentation upon landing. Landing within a country must be made at one of the designated airports of entry, which are listed in the ICAO Regional Air Navigation Plan or the country’s AIP. In some cases, mandatory routes to be flown will be specified as well.

Handling Provided vs. Self Arranged

A wide range of services for international operators are available from professional firms that specialize in obtaining overflight and landing permits, security information, computerized flight planning, weather information, charts, NOTAM dissemination, communications, flight following and ground handling for passengers, aircraft, and crew. The decision on whether to use such a firm, and which firm to use is based primarily on the operator’s level of experience in the region and what level of service the operator desires. Depending on the country/airport, specific handling services and agents may be mandated.

Datalink Mandates

CNS/ATM mandates are developing and vary from region to region based upon different overseas regulators. A typical timeline of a country’s required equipment implementation begins with a period of trial and evaluation. This is followed by a voluntary participation period. Sometime after that, an equipage mandate is issued. From this point forward, operators are required to equip and participate or be excluded from the airspace.  Usually relief is granted for maintenance ferry flights, delivery flights or search-and-rescue operations. Non-compliant normal operations are typically excluded.

Weather Considerations... Seasonal, Expected, Severe

Understanding weather forecasting techniques and the limitations of the various phenomena is an essential skill that can help you plan around significant weather phenomena. Be proactive in alerting your passengers to weather impacting their flight, especially if timing will be affected.

Equipment Considerations

Regional airports will be more limited in GSE options. Individual AIPs and ICAO regulations are consistent in that they require survival equipment to be carried when operating over sparsely populated or remote areas. Separate from the required first aid kits, an emergency medical supply kit provides for the more frequent cases of medical diversions and critical in-flight medical treatment. Many operators choose to carry and train for the use of automated external defibrillators, AED. A supply of drinking water, non-perishable snack food, condiments, eating utensils and cleaning supplies should be considered for carriage.

Crew Considerations

U.S. flight crews traveling abroad are required to carry all appropriate FAA certificates. Temporary certificates are rarely acceptable. ICAO bases medical certificates on the type of license held rather than operation. Airline Transport Pilots are required to have a valid first class medical. These certificates are typically considered valid only to the actual date of exam, not the end of the month. A restricted radiotelephone operator’s license issued by the FCC is required, even though this license no longer is required domestically. A passport is required for all international travel and should be valid for a period of at least six months at the time of arrival in a foreign country. This varies by country and visa requirements. Sleep loss is one of the primary contributors to fatigue in flight crewmembers and is directly related to a variety of scheduling factors.

Passenger Considerations

Most countries hold the pilot-in-command responsible for any improper documentation held by crew or passengers and can deny entry and possibly impose penalties. Coordination and oversight of passenger and flightcrew documentation requirements is needed to ensure delay free and efficient international operations. As a standard, personal documents normally required include a passport to verify citizenship, immunization records that are recognized by the WHO to prove acceptable health status and a visa to permit admission to the countries requiring them. The generally accepted international procedure for children under the age of 18 traveling without BOTH parents is to have written consent of a non-accompanying parent. While state procedures vary, if state officials and you do not have it, you may be detained until the circumstances of the child traveling without both parents can be fully assessed. 

Trip Contingencies

Having a plan in advance on how to get care when you’re overseas and become sick or injured without warning is the key to successful treatment. This applies to all travelers, but is especially important for senior citizens, pregnant women, people with pre-existing conditions, or people who will be in a foreign country for an extended period of time. 

In general, maintenance away from home base can be separated into two areas of responsibility. The first occurs when the company has a maintenance manager or someone with responsibility for the aircraft’s maintenance. The second occurs when no one fills that position. In either situation, the flight crew should consult the MEL. The availability of maintenance outside the United States should be balanced against the need to carry spare parts and an aircraft technician on the flight. A list of FAA-approved maintenance bases outside the U.S. and foreign repair stations can be obtained from the FAA.

Although your hull and liability policy may state "Worldwide", there are many areas generally excluded from coverage due to hostilities of one form or another. Specific written underwriter approval from your insurance agent/broker confirming underwriter acceptance of the flight is recommeded if you are going to a "Garden Spot"