International Equipment Top 10 FAQ’s


Many Jeppeson charts have TERPS or PANS-OPS notated in the lower left margin. If there is no criteria noted i.e. it’s blank do I assume it is a PANS-OPS procedure?

If not annotated on the chart look in the Air Traffic Control section of the Jeppesen Airway Manual and look up the country rules and procedures for the country you operating in.  Specifically, look in the Procedure Limitations and Options section of the countries rules and procedures to determine what criteria they use in the development of procedures. The source document of course is the country’s Aeronautical Information Publication.

What are the “Blue Spruce Routes” in the NAT ?

Special routes known as the ‘Blue Spruce’ Routes have been established for use by aircraft suffering partial loss of navigation capability. Below FL285, these routes may also be flown by aircraft approved for NAT HLA operations but equipped with only a single LRNS.     

NAT Document #007, Paragraph 12.2.1 and 18.10.1

Are the Wake Turbulence Category’s in FAA different from ICAO?

Yes, and getting more different. ICAO Document # 8643 defines “Super Heavy” (A-380) 1,200,000LBS MTOW or more, “Heavy” Above 300,000LBS MTOW “Medium” between 300,000 and 15,500MTOW, “Light” below 15,500MTOW.

The FAA’s “Pilot/Controller Glossary” defines only Heavy, above 300,000lbs MTOW, Large 41,000 to 300,000 MTOW and Small under 41,000MTOW. In actual operation, the FAA currently uses six (6) wake turbulence separation categories based primarily on weight: Super (A380), Heavy, B757, Large, Small+, and Small. In October 2012 a joint program was launched between FAA and Eurocontrol called “RECAT” revising wake turbulence categories to gain capacity. RECAT applies across the breadth of the current six wake-turbulence aircraft separation categories: super (A380), heavy (B757), large, small+ and small. RECAT will place aircraft into six categories labeled A through F for both departure and arrival separation. In addition to aircraft weight, the new categories will consider certified approach speeds and wing characteristics, along with special consideration given to aircraft with limited ability to counteract adverse rolls. The Airbus A380, for example, becomes a category “A” aircraft, while a Cessna Citation Mustang is listed as a category “F.” A Mustang following an A380 will be separated by 8 nm on approach under the new standards. FAA SAFO #12007, 10/18/12

Is there a listing of some basic FAR’s to consider when operating in the NAT?

Inside North Atlantic Resource Guide. Look For: “Part 91” on page 23 and “Part 135” on page 25

Where can pilots find a list of special emphasis items for RLatSM operations in the NAT?

U.S. Operators: Special Emphasis Items For Operation In North Atlantic Reduced Lateral Separation Minimum (RLATSM) Trials,  Inside FAA’s NOTICES TO AIRMEN Domestic/International, Part 2, Section 3. Look for: “Guidance For U.S. Operators: Special Emphasis Items For Operation In North Atlantic Reduced Lateral Separation Minimum (RLATSM) Trials,  2 February 2017 Update,” Paragraph 5

I have heard that Gulf of Mexico operations are not really Oceanic/Remote in the eyes of the FAA. Is this true?

14CFR91.703 Speaks to the term “High Seas” this is defined as 12NM. Q100, Q101 and Q105 are defined as Class I by FAA Order 8900.1, Vol. 4, Chapter 1, Section 3, Paragraph 4-56“Area Navigation Systems” So the answer is that these routes are in international airspace and are Class l Navigation if properly equipped.

Once the oceanic crossing into the UK was complete, I was “Radar Identified” then ATC says... “Cleared to Shannon” Does this mean I can go direct?

NO, fly the planned route to EINN. Irish AIP, Enroute Section, Paragraph 3.1-3, “Rule #28”"Cleared direct" is non-ICAO phraseology, “Proceed present position direct to XXX” would be the correct terms to use. In any case of ambiguity, resolve it with ATC directly. ICAO Document#9432 and ICAO Document#4444, PANS-ATM, Paragraph


Where can I find information from the FAA on “International” NOTAMS?

FAA Notices to Airmen, Domestic/International, Part three. Here’s a link: https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/notices/

Is there a route from Florida along Cuba to Cancun that is Class I Navigation airspace?

This basically comes down to a question of what is the Standard Service Volume, SSV for the ground based Navaids involved. SSV is dependent on power output of the facility and the altitude of the aircraft. High VOR's are listed to have a SSV of 130NM between FL180 and FL450. HH NDB's have a SSV of 75NM. DME has a SSV of 199NM. Using these mileages, the critical part comes in when crossing the Yucatan Channel between Cuba and Mexico. The shortest route I could find is Gerona NDB (UNG) along UR519 to Cancun VOR (CUN), 227NM between navaids. I cannot find any reference to extended range capabilities of CUN or UNG.  227NM is the mileage listed on the chart along UR519. As an alternate route I would offer UCY, UR506, NUDAL. It is the next best distance at 252NM. Both routes are longer than 205NM (130+75), This would be legal as a Class One routing by 22NM and 47NM. 14 CFR 91.511

Where do I find the Definition of “Special Areas of Operation” Airspace? 

From the FAA aviation safety inspector’s (ASI) Handbook, (FAA Order 8900.1, Volume.4, Chapter 1, Section 2, Paragraph 4-24).
Examples of special areas of operation include the following:
Areas of Magnetic Unreliability (AMU) and Polar operations
North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (NAT/MNPS) airspace
Central East Pacific (CEPAC) airspace
North Pacific (NOPAC) airspace
Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS)
West Atlantic Route System (WATRS) and the Caribbean Sea
Gulf of Mexico control areas (Gulf routes)
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM)
Required Navigation Performance (RNP)-10,4 ect.

Examples of special Navigation Equipment include the following:
Area Navigation (RNAV)
Inertial navigation or reference systems INS, IRS or GPS


What are the requirements for carrying and using an oceanic plotting chart?

There is no specific regulatory requirement for plotting charts. Generally speaking, The requirement is to be able to reliably fix your position and cross-check navigation information at least once an hour. There is a reference inside the FAA Inspector’s manual that plotting procedures are required when turbojets operate in excess of 725NM (450NM Turboprop) between the service volume of ICAO ground-based NAVAIDs. Some operators have been approved for no plotting requirements based upon nav system installation and crew monitoring procedures. Check your specific operations approval documents for details on the specific your operation. AC 91-70B Paragraph, FAA Order 8900.1 Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 4, Paragraph 4-80. NAT Doc #007, Paragraph 8.2.10 thru 8.2.13

I have a conviction in the USA of Driving While Intoxicated, DWI. Is this a problem in international operations?

Canadian immigration policy prohibits entry of any person (not just flight crews) who have a 10-year old or less misdemeanor conviction, or any class DUI conviction. The decision to grant or deny the petition for waiver is totally discretionary with the Canadian immigration officials.  Review the Canadian immigration web site at: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/visit/index.asp. If you have any questions about how they enforce this policy, call their Call Centre at 888.242.2100.

What are the training requirements for international procedures?

Specific international operations’ training is not required by the FAA regulations or by Annex 2 to the ICAO. FAA Inspector’s have wide latitude in determining crew qualifications for “Special Use Airspace” and “Special Navigation Equipment”.  In the FAA Inspector's Handbook, Order 8900.1 Volume 4 Chapter 12 it states: "Experience has clearly demonstrated that the presence of sophisticated navigational equipment on board an aircraft does not, by itself, ensure that a high level of performance will be achieved. It is essential that operators provide adequate training for the personnel operating or maintaining the equipment, and that operating drills and procedures are included in crew training." At a minimum, private operators are expected to “Be Familiar” with the Oceanic/Remote operation intended. Commercial operators usually need to satisfy a crew training requirement by completing an operator’s FAA approved oceanic operations training program or by completing a commercial provider’s oceanic operations training. Military training records indicating prior oceanic operations experience may be use as proof of training also.

What are the navigation system accuracy requirements when operating above or below NAT HLA airspace in the North Atlantic Region?

NATHLA places an accuracy and redundancy into the navigation specification. Above or below NATHLA, redundancy is the only requirement. The MNPS to PBN NAT transition plan became effective from January 2015. From that date forward,  all new North Atlantic MNPS Operational Approvals will be based upon RNAV 10 (RNP 10) or RNP 4 navigation specifications.  14CFR 91.511, NAT Document #007, Chapter 1, Paragraph 1.3

Where can I find a list of USA sanctioned countries? 

This applies to U.S.-registered aircraft . As you might expect, countries such as Burma, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Sudan and Syria, are sanctioned countries. Regulations differ and change for all of these countries via federal register and NOTAM service. Special Federal Aviation Regulation 77

Where is the requirement to have two sets of corrective lens when operating internationally?

Only for Near Vision correction. An individual country’s Aeronautical Information Publication, AIP may differ from this requirement.

ICAO Annex 1, Paragraph,            

What is the bottomline, Does the ICAO make the rules and procedures internationally?

ICAO does not require any regulation.  It sets standards and recommends practices that each signatory State (read country) has the option to accept and enforce or not, in their own regulatory environment.  One of the Articles of the Convention guarantees this right.  As such, ICAO has no authority over rulemaking in the US, for US Operators. 14CFR 91.703 does direct US operators to follow specific ICAO procedures while over the "High Seas"​

Where can I find a copy of the ICAO Annex's?

Is it legal for me to use my FAA temporary pilot certificate internationally?

Usually a temporary is not accepted, it will depend on the individual country's AIP.

Where do I Find The FAA's Definition of “Special Use Airspace”?

FAA aviation safety inspector’s (ASI) Handbook, FAA Order 8900.1, VOL.4, Chapter 1.

  • Examples of special areas of operation include the following:
  •        Areas of Magnetic Unreliability (AMU) and Polar operations
  •        North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace
  •        Central East Pacific (CEPAC) airspace
  •        North Pacific (NOPAC) airspace
  •        Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS)
  •        West Atlantic Route System (WATRS) and the Caribbean Sea
  •        Gulf of Mexico control areas (Gulf routes)
  •        Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM)
  •        Required Navigation Performance (RNP)-10,4 ect.
  • Examples of special Navigation Equipment include the following:
  •        Area Navigation (RNAV)
  •        Inertial navigation or reference systems INS, IRS or GPS


What is a Journey Log Book?

A Journey Log Book shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation. In this log shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, crew and each journey.  Recommended items are aeroplane nationality, registration, date, crew names and duty assignments, departure and arrival times and points, purpose and observations of the flight, PIC signature. In some cases the General Declaration “GenDec” can be used for this. ICAO Article 29, 34, ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 11.4. Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 2.4.2 and 2.8.2. AC 91-70A, Paragraph 3-1 and 3-5, EASA AMC Guidance Material ORO-20


Are there fuel remaining requirements from and Equal Time Point to the diversion airport?

For private operators, there are no regulatory requirements for fuel remaining at an ETP.

Commercial operations (121 or 135) do have extensive planning requirements. Specifically, fuel required at the ETP point is the standard IFR alternate fuel required (135.223) or the greater of:

1. Cabin decompression cruise profile

2. One-engine inop, OEI and simultaneous cabin decompression cruise profile

3. One-engine inoperative cruise profile.

Followed by:

IFR hold above alternate at 1,500AFL for 15 minutes then, approach and landing. Then factor in:

5% to headwinds at cruise/5% decrease in tailwinds at cruise. Without a reliable icing prediction, any cruising to alternate must include fuel for engine/wing anti-icing system use at OAT’s below +10C. APU fuel burn must be accounted for if planned for use during these profiles. AC 120-42B and 135-42, Paragraph #402

Where can I find a list of the PIC special qualification airports?

The Special Pilot-In-Command Qualification Airport List is maintained in the FSIMS and is associated with operations specifications C050 and C067. The current list can be found at: http://fsims.faa.gov

Where can I find the Oceanic/Remote Weather Deviation procedures for Oakland Oceanic? 

Inside Chart Supplement Pacific, Section 5. Look for: “Special Procedures For In–Flight Contingencies In Oceanic Airspace” 

When ATC is using Mach Number Technique, MNT (assigned a Mach number to hold), What are the tolerances for speed control?


The pilot is expected to hold the assigned True Mach number+/- 0. Confusion arises from an Oakland Oceanic, KZAK NOTAM # A1613/16










ICAO Annex 2, Paragraph, ICAO Document #4444, Paragraph

If ADS-C is sending position reports to a ground station, why do I have to make HF radio calls?

It depends on the OCA’s monitoring needs. If they state that “Voice reports not required” then do not make routine voice reports. in this case, HF radios would be used to maintain a back up to CPDLC. SELCAL would also have to be checked for functionality. Global Operational Data Link Document (GOLD), 2nd Edition Chapter 5, Paragraph 5.6.3, NAT Document007 Paragraph 6.1.22.

In reference to ATC Clearances, I can't find a good working definition of the words "At" or "By".

"At" would indicate that the pilot takes the appropriate actions so as to arrive at the correct position (vertical, lateral, horizontal) specified in the clearance at the specified time or location.

"By" would indicate that at the pilot’s prerogative the appropriate action would be taken so as to arrive at the correct position (vertical, lateral, longitudinal) before the position specified in the clearance. If unsure of what the clearance is requiring, query the controller and get confirmation. ICAO Document #4444, Paragraph 12.3.1 J, K and L Operational Data Link Document (GOLD), 2nd Edition Appendix A, UM 20 thru UM29 and North Atlantic Operations Bulletin #2014_002

Where and when do I really need to temperature compensate the altimeter readings for cold weather?

The Canadian’s know a lot about cold weather flight operations. Inside their AIM it states that all Procedure Turn, FAF, MDA and missed approach altitudes should be corrected by the pilot and then advised to ATC.  Transport Canada TC/AIM RAC 9.0 Instrument Arrival Flight Rules, IFR Procedures 9.17.

Since 17SEP15 the FAA has directed cold weather altimeter corrections a specific airports. In response to recognized safety concerns over cold weather altimetry errors, the FAA completed a risk analysis to determine if current instrument approach procedures in the United States National Airspace System are at risk during cold temperature operations. The study used the coldest recorded temperature for the airport in the last five years and specifically investigated if there was a probability that expected altitude errors in a barometric altimetry system, during these non-standard day operations, could exceed the Required Obstacle Clearance used on procedure segment altitudes. Please see InFO#15002 and AIM Paragraph 7-2-3 for complete details. ICAO Document #8168, PANS-Ops Volume 1, Part 3, Chapter 4 has another good description of what and how to apply altimeter corrections. It specifically address’ the fact that only while on Radar vectors is the controller responsible and applies a cold weather altimeter correction. This ATC correction is not uniformly applied worldwide.

Are there time limits associated with IRS operation in oceanic airspace ? 

Yes. RNP(RNAV)-10 airspace operations places a time limit on INS only operations. This begins from the moment the LRNS is placed into “NAV” or is last updated via GNSS, DME/DME, VOR/DME or manuallyAC 90-105A, Appendix G, Paragraph G.5

Is the Russian Federation a WGS-84 compliant country?

The national geodetic geocentric coordinate system “The Parameters of the Earth - 1990” PZ-90, (PZ-90.02), which is practically identical to WGS-84, is used in the Russian Federation. The geodetic sys- tem of 1942 (SK-42) shall be used temporarily at the aerodromes and on the airways where the accurate geodetic survey has not been carried out according to the coordinate system PZ-90. Russian AIP, General 1.7 “Annex 4 2.18.1”


What are the basic requirements for RCP-240?

Generally, you can measure RCP in terms of the timeline required to complete the transaction and the continuity, availability and integrity of the transaction. In Oceanic and Remote Continental Airspace, RCP 240 and RCP 400 are the prevalent performance standards.

RCP 240 requires a 99.9% probability (continuity) the communications transaction will complete in less than 240 seconds (timeline). It also requires a 99.99% probability the communication can be initiated (availability) and no more than 10-5communications transaction malfunctions per flight hour (integrity). RCP 400 requires a 99.9% probability (continuity) the communications transaction will complete in less than 400 seconds (timeline). It also requires a 99.9% probability the communication can be initiated (availability) and no more and no more than 10-5communications transaction malfunctions per flight hour (integrity).

FAA’s DataComm  AC 90-117, Paragraph 2.15

ICAO document #9869, Performance-Based Communication Surveillance, PBCS Manual Paragraph 2.2

Is a Part 91 aircraft required to have redundant long-range communications systems when conducting over water flights?

Yes. Absent specific operational relief from the FAA in a specific area and /or on specific routes,14CFR 91.511 applies.

My aircraft has a single HF radio. Can I fly Oceanic with this setup?

Yes, depending on routing and area of operation. Part91/GA If VHF and HF are required for your routing AND you have two VHF’s; one HF is acceptable. 14CFR 91.511 and KZNY Center NOTAM #A0447/10

If SELCAL isn’t functioning in Oceanic/Remote airspace. Can I continue the flight?

Yes, SELCAL meets the "Continuous listening watch” requirement of 14 CFR 91.511. If SELCAL is inoperative one of the pilots must listen on the appropriate enroute frequency for calls. AC 91-70A, Paragraph 6-2b

Is a master clock required to be designated in Oceanic/Remote airspace?

Yes. NAT Document #007, Guidance Concerning Air Navigation in and above the NAT MNPSA Chapter 8, Paragraph 8.2.2 FAA AC 90-70A Appendix 2 Paragraph 2

Describe the NAT Datalink Mandate requirements.

The first phase of the North Atlantic Data Link Mandate was implemented on 07 February 2013. In this phase the Remarks section of the daily OTS Track Messages each specified two core tracks on which to flight plan or fly in the altitude band FL360-390 inclusive, aircraft must be equipped with and operating CPDLC and ADS-C. The initial element of the second phase of the mandate (2A) was implemented on 05 February 2015. The vertical and lateral extent of the Data Link Mandated NAT airspace was then expanded to encompass all NAT OTS Tracks in the altitude band FL350-390 inclusive.. The goals are that: by 2018, 90% of aircraft operating in the NAT Region airspace at FL290 and above will be equipped with FANS 1/A or equivalent ADS-C and CPDLC and that by 2020, 95% of aircraft operating in that airspace will be so equipped. 

NAT Document #007, Paragraph 1.10.4

Where in Annex 6 does it state that an ELT must operate on 406 MHz?

ICAO does not have a requirement for a specific ELT transmitter.  Annex 6 describes how many and if automatic or not, Annex 10 describes specifications for the actual transmitter. An individual country’s Aeronautical Information Publication, AIP will state the requirement for Either 121.5 or  406MHz transmitters. ICAO Annex 6, Part I, Para. 2.4.12 ICAO Annex 10 Volume III, Part II, Chapter 5.

When do I need to install TCAS System 7.1 on my plane? 

The Federal Aviation Administration authorizes, but does not mandate TCAS II Version 7.1 software for use in the National Airspace System (NAS). Version 7.1 is defined by FAA TSO-C119c. With introduction of TCAS II Version 7.1, the FAA now permits three versions of TCAS II in US airspace; V6.04a, V7.0 and V7.1 (note that FAA requires V7.0 or greater in RVSM airspace). More information about TCAS II can be found in the FAA’s Introduction to TCAS II V7.1 pamphlet; FAA InFO  #12010, 06/26/12

On 20 December 2011, the European Commission published an Implementing Rule mandating the carriage of ACAS II version 7.1 within European Union by all aeroplanes with a maximum certified take-off mass exceeding 5,700 kg or authorised to carry more 19 passengers from 1 March 2012. An  exception was made for aeroplanes with an individual certificate of airworthiness issued before 1 March 2012 that must be equipped as of 1 December 2015.

ICAO Annex 6 states that as of 1 January 2005, all turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5700 kg or authorized to carry more than 19 passengers shall be equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II). Amendment 85 to ICAO Annex 10 volume IV, published in October 2010, introduced a provision stating that all new ACAS installations after 1 January 2014 shall be compliant with version 7.1; and all ACAS units shall be compliant with version 7.1 after 1 January 2017.

Where can I find details about obtaining FAA approval for EFB usage?

Guidance material can be found in AC 120-76C, AC 91-78 and specific approval requirements are found in FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 4, Chapter 15, Section 1. NBAA publishes a good summary for Part 91/GA operators here: https://www.nbaa.org/ops/cns/efb/

Can I use my aircraft’s HUD and SFS internationally?

Depends on the country’s AIP directives. EASA has specific certification requirements of the HUD/EVS system and the operator’s approval. These can be found in SPA.LVO 100 and OEB Administrative and Guidance Procedures ICAO has crew training guidance and operational concepts guidance found in:

ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraphs 2.4.8, 6.23 and Attachment I.

ICAO Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraphs 2.4.16, 3.6.12 and Attachment 2B.

Validation Flight

While flying in a particular airspace, how do you know if an ADS-C contract has been established? 

Specific FMC’s will vary. Consult your AFM or Ops Manual for specifics. As a generic procedure... look for the “ATC LogOn” page. On there find the “ADS” line select key. Find the “Active” prompt there. This is the indication of at least one active ADS contract.  The parameters of the contract can be found on “Page 2” of the “ATC LogOn” page. Global Operational Datalink document, GOLD Chapters 2, 4, 5”    

Is there a requirement for a crewmember to hold a valid radiotelephone license during international operations?

Yes. FCC Form 605Pilots Restricted Station License: http://wireless.fcc.gov/commoperators/rp.html

When it comes to revising ETA’s is it 2minutes or 3minutes that is the limit?

One of the ADS-C reporting parameters that ATC will set is "120sec". The contract parameters are mostly hidden from the operating pilot. Buried inside the FMS, there are displays that will allow a pilot to view exactly ATC has "Contracted" for with your FMC. ETA revisions of greater than 120 seconds is one of these triggers. With ADS_C reporting, voice reports are not required. Reporting is automatic thru ADS-C updating ATC anytime your “NEXT” estimated time of arrival is off by more than 120 seconds. ICAO modified Annex 2 with Amendment #43 in 2012 with this newer 2 minute/120 second threshold so as to be consistent between voice and ADS-C reporting. That being said, some regulators describe this reporting requirement as "3 Minutes or greater" vice the “Greater than 2minutes” found in Annex 2. It is the same threshold… just described from the other end of the number line. The Human Factors problem here is that most every pilot remembers the "Greater than +/- 3 minutes" from instrument training. From my view, the choice to use "3 Minutes or greater" is poor. It too closely resembles the old definition and creates the confusion we see now. Worldwide reference documents add little consistency for a solution to this problem.

ICAO Annex 2, Paragraph

NAT Document #007, Paragraph 5.1.7

FAA Order 8900, Volume 7, Chapter 3, Paragraph 7-81,D.4

Is there a maximum age limit for pilots flying internationally?

There is no "Age 60" problem with Part 91/GA operations. The requirement comes in with Commercial operations, (Part 135 or 121). ICAO recommends one pilot at the controls to be below 60 if the PIC is over 60.  The issue is further confused by the fact that the FAA has applied this to Part 121 carriers only. ICAO countries apply this rule to any commercial operation (Part 135 included). An individual state (country) has the right to set their own rules apart from the ICAO or FAA. The AIP for the country in question would have this information.

Is there an FAA regulation that directs 121.5 be monitored in international airspace? Is there an ICAO “Regulation” that directs 121.5 be monitored in international airspace?

So far as the FAA is concerned, No. There is some pretty strong “Guidance” on the subject to say “Yes”. Take a look in AC 91-70a Chapter 6, Paragraph 6-2

So far as the ICAO is concerned, Yes. Annex 10, Volume 2, Chapter 5, Paragraph

Is the FAA first class medical valid for 12 months, if under the age of 40 in international operations?

Yes, this is correct if you are operating with a Commercial Pilot certificate. If your certificate is an Airline Transport Pilot, the FAA Class One will expire at the end of the 6th month for USA operations, 6 months from the DATE of examination for ICAO operations. Specific countries may have different expirations and can be found in their Aeronautical Information Publication, AIP. Annex 1, Chapter 2, Paragraph, 14CFR 61.23

How do you determine which countries/regions/airspaces allow the use of Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure, SLOP?

The Aeronautical Information Publication, AIP for a particular country will detail how procedures are applied inside that country’s  airspace. ICAO Document #4444, Chapter 15, Para 15.2.4 indicates that SLOP can be applied to enroute Oceanic and remote continental operations.

What is the bottom-line for international procedures, ICAO or the country you are flying in?

The country that you are inside the boundaries of has complete sovereignty in the airspace above it’s territory. ICAO provides a set of standard and recommended practices that this country may choose to accept as a whole or only specific parts. 14CFR 91.703, ICAO Article 1.           

Define, Class I Navigation, Class II Oceanic, Class II Remote and Offshore High Airspace?

To comprehend the FAA’s definition of Class I or Class II navigation, we must first understand the concept of operational service volume. 

Operational service volume is the volume of airspace surrounding an ICAO standard airways navigation facility that is available for operational use. Within that area, a signal of usable strength exists and conforms to flight inspection signal strength and course quality standards, including frequency protection. This describes a three-dimensional volume of airspace. ICAO standard NAVAIDs are VOR, VOR/DME and NDB. 

Class I navigation is any en route flight operation that is entirely within operational service volumes of ICAO standard NAVAIDs. Class II navigation is any en route operation not categorized as Class I navigation. 

“Class II” Navigation also places a requirement to at least once an hour "Reliably Fix" your position. This will be detailed in your LOA/OpsSpec B034/B050 and B036 authorizations. A more detailed explanation of “Class II” navigation is found in FAA Order 8900, Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 4. 

Inside AC 90-105A (issued back in March 2016) Paragraph 6.5 makes the distinction between Oceanic, Remote Continental, and Offshore operations. It really has nothing to do with a specific number of NM from shore. 

Oceanic airspace is defined as international airspace over oceans where separation and procedures are in accordance with ICAO. Controllers provide Air Traffic Services utilizing procedural control and procedural separation. 

Remote Continental airspace is defined as airspace above terrain where line-of-sight communications, independent surveillance and reliable ground-based NAVAIDs is not available. Controllers provide ATS utilizing procedural control and procedural separation. 

Offshore airspace is defined as international airspace within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic ATC procedures are applied.

What special training or checkride do you need to fly international as a Part 91 operator?

None, provided that you do not enter any of the Special Area of Operations like Class II NAV or NAT HLA. As a GA operator you are only required to be knowledgeable. FAA Order 8900.1 Vol. 4, Chap. 1, Sec.2, Para 4-24 

Odd Bits and Weird

Who invented the HF Radio?

In the early 1800’s various scientists proposed that electricity and magnetism were linked. It was not until the early 1900’s when a Swedish-American electrical engineer, Ernst Frederick Werner Alexanderson (1878 -1975) was working for the General Electric company and designed the Alexanderson alternator. This was a high-frequency generator for longwave transmissions, which made voice radio broadcasts practical. His first practical demonstration was on Christmas Eve, 1906. Fessenden broadcast from Brant Rock, Massachusetts using a 500 watt transmitter. The transmission was heard as far away as the Caribbean Sea.

Where is the most remote point in an ocean on earth?

(S48°52.6′, W123°23.6′) Called “Point Nemo” the point in the Pacific Ocean farthest from any land.

Who’s Roger, and Why Do Pilots Talk So Much About Him?

A very plausible explanation arises from aviation’s early days, when the emerging industry adopted customs, procedures, and terms from more established industries. One such industry was the telegraph business, which of course operated in Morse code. Given the uncertain quality and reliability of such transmissions, standard procedure upon successful receipt of a message was for the receiver to transmit a single letter — “R” — to signify that “I have received and understood your last transmission.” Voice communications being similarly subject to garbles, early aviators and their ground-bound interlocutors needed a similar protocol. As it was not possible to transmit a Morse-coded “R,” they did the next best thing by transmitting the word “roger,” which was at that time the spelling (phonetic) alphabet version of the letter “R.” Then, as now, it was simply an acknowledgement that “I have received and understood your last transmission.”

What’s up with international “Spelling Alphabets”?

According to some sources, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) created the world’s first spelling alphabet, which is a more accurate term for what most of us call the “phonetic” alphabet. The initial version was used from 1927 until 1932 when, with changes made to improve functionality, it was also adopted by the International Commission for Air Navigation (one of ICAO’s predecessor organizations).

The 1932 spelling alphabet consisted of the following:Amsterdam Baltimore Casablanca Denmark Edison Florida Gallipoli Havana Italia Jerusalem Kilogramme Liverpool Madagascar New York Oslo Paris Quebec Roma Santiago Tripoli Upsala Valencia Washington Xanthippe Yokohama Zurich.

In 1941, the United States began using the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet, which was more commonly known as the “Able Baker” version. Its terms were as follows: Able Baker Charlie Dog Easy Fox George How Item Jig King Love Mike Nan Oboe Peter Queen Roger Sugar Tare Uncle Victor William X-ray Yoke Zebra Several other domestic and international variants (e.g., Latin America’s “Ana Brazil” spelling alphabet) were used in this era, with lessons learned with respect to global functionality and understandability. In

November 1955, ICAO provided a recording of its proposed Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet to all member
states for testing, and adopted the final version for aeronautical use in March 1956: Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliett Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey Xray Yankee Zulu

Why is English the international language of the air ?

Historical circumstance. At the time the 52 nations who founded the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) first convened in Chicago in 1944, WWII had devastated many countries’ industrial capacity — including aviation manufacturing and operations. ICAO made English the official lingua franca of global aviation primarily because English speaking countries dominated the era’s flight operations. Although there was (and still is) no prohibition on the use of the local language(s) in domestic airspace, ICAO’s 1951 adoption of English as the official language for aviation guaranteed — sort of — that English language capability would be available for all international flights.

What should I be aware of concerning radiation hazards experienced at altitudes that we fly at?

There are significant risks to humans at higher flight levels. These risks are details in a DOT report DOT/FAA/AM-03/16 and FAA AC 120-61A     

Where is the northernmost point of Earth?

The geographic North Pole in the Arctic Ocean is the northernmost point of Earth. The northernmost point on land is Kaffeklubben Island north of Greenland (N83°40′N W29°50′), which lies slightly north of Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland 

Where is the southernmost point of Earth?

The southernmost point of the world and the southernmost point on land is the geographic South Pole, which is on the continent of Antarctica

Where is the western and eastern most point of Earth?

The westernmost and easternmost points of the world, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes.  The westernmost point on land, would be Attu Island, Alaska. The easternmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, would be Caroline Island, Kiribati. Due to a 1995 realignment of the International Date

Where is the highest point of Earth?

The highest point measured from sea level is the summit of Mount Everest that borders Nepal and China. Measurements of its height vary slightly, the elevation of its peak is usually given as 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.

Where is the lowest point of Earth?

The lowest known point is Challenger Deep (11°20.0′N 142°11.8′E.) at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 10,911 m (35,797 ft) below sea level.

Where is the highest town/city or village on Earth?

La Rinconada, Peru, 5,100 m (16,732 ft), in the Peruvian Andes. It is located near a gold mine.